Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
In the opinion of management, the accompanying Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared on a consistent basis with the Company’s Audited Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2020, and include all adjustments, consisting of only normal recurring adjustments, necessary to fairly state the information set forth herein. The Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and therefore, omit certain information and footnote disclosures necessary to present the financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”).
The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2021 or any future periods. The Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2020 was derived from the Company’s audited financial statements as of December 31, 2020, which are included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 1, 2021. The unaudited financial statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, which includes a broader discussion of the Company’s business and the risks inherent therein.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of income and expense during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The most significant accounting estimates inherent in the preparation of the Company’s financial statements include estimates as to the appropriate carrying value of certain assets
and liabilities, which are not readily apparent from other sources. Such estimates and judgments are utilized for stock-based compensation expense, equity instruments, derivative liabilities, and debt with embedded features.
Risks and Uncertainties
The Company’s operations are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to, changes in the general economy, the size and growth of the potential markets for any of the Company’s product candidates, results of research and development activities, uncertainties surrounding regulatory developments in the United States and Australia, and the Company’s ability to attract new funding.
Fair Value Measurements
Certain assets and liabilities are carried at fair value under GAAP. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (the “exit price”) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. A fair value hierarchy based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable, and the last is considered unobservable, is used to measure fair value:
Level 1:    Valuations for assets and liabilities traded in active markets from readily available pricing sources such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2:    Observable inputs (other than Level 1 quoted prices) such as quoted prices in active markets for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active for identical or similar assets or liabilities, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data.
Level 3:    Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to determining the fair value of the assets or liabilities, including pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies and similar techniques.
The carrying values of the Company’s financial instruments, with the exception of the Amended Credit Agreement and derivative liabilities, including, cash, prepaid expenses, accounts payable and other current liabilities approximate their fair value due to the short maturities of these financial instruments. The derivative liabilities are valued on a recurring basis utilizing Level 3 inputs (Note 3).
As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company estimated that the fair value of the Amended Credit Agreement was materially consistent with the fair value estimate as of December 31, 2019 of approximately $1,877,938, plus the non-convertible advances made in 2020. This determination was based on the following considerations: (i) the Company has not experienced any significant change in its credit worthiness or operations year over year, (ii) there have been no repayments or convertible draws, (iii) the facility is closer to maturity, and (iv) the embedded conversion feature on the convertible advances is out-of-the-money at the reporting date. Information pertinent to estimating the fair value of the Amended Credit Agreement includes valuing the embedded conversion feature and considering the discounted cash flows of the interest and principal payments through maturity (Note 4).
Convertible Instruments
The Company accounts for hybrid contracts with embedded conversion features in accordance with GAAP. ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging Activities (“ASC 815”) requires companies to bifurcate conversion options from their host instruments and account for them as free-standing derivative financial instruments according to certain criteria. The criteria includes circumstances in which (a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative instrument are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract, (b) the hybrid instrument that embodies both the embedded derivative instrument and the host contract is not re-measured at fair value under otherwise applicable generally accepted accounting principles with changes in fair value reported in earnings as they occur and (c) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative instrument would be considered a derivative instrument.
The Company accounts for convertible debt instruments with embedded conversion features in accordance with ASC 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options (“ASC 470-20”) if it is determined that the conversion feature should not be bifurcated from their host instruments. Under ASC 470-20, the Company records, when necessary, discounts to convertible notes for the intrinsic value of conversion options embedded in debt instruments based upon the difference between the fair
value of the underlying common stock at the commitment date and the embedded effective conversion price. When the Company determines that the embedded conversion option should be bifurcated from its host instrument, the embedded feature is accounted for in accordance with ASC 815. Under ASC 815, a portion of the proceeds received upon the issuance of the hybrid contract is allocated to the fair value of the derivative. The derivative is subsequently recorded at fair value at each reporting date based on current fair value, with the changes in fair value reported in the results of operations.
The Company also follows ASC 480-10, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (“ASC 480-10”) when evaluating the accounting for its hybrid instruments. A financial instrument that embodies an unconditional obligation, or a financial instrument other than an outstanding share that embodies a conditional obligation, that the issuer must or may settle by issuing a variable number of its equity shares shall be classified as a liability (or an asset in some circumstances) if, at inception, the monetary value of the obligation is based solely or predominantly on any one of the following: (a) a fixed monetary amount known at inception (for example, a payable settled with a variable number of the issuer’s equity shares); (b) variations in something other than the fair value of the issuer’s equity shares (for example, a financial instrument indexed to the Standard and Poor’s S&P 500 Index and settled with a variable number of the issuer’s equity shares); or (c) variations inversely related to changes in the fair value of the issuer’s equity shares (for example, a written put option that could be net share settled). Hybrid instruments meeting these criteria are not further evaluated for any embedded derivatives and are carried as a liability at fair value at each balance sheet date with a re-measurement reported in other expense (income), net in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss.
When determining the short-term vs. long-term classification of derivative liabilities, the Company first evaluates the instruments’ exercise provisions. Generally, if a derivative is a liability and exercisable within one year, it will be classified as short-term. However, because of the unique provisions and circumstances that may impact the accounting for derivative instruments, the Company carefully evaluates all factors that could potentially restrict the instrument from being exercised or create a situation where exercise would be considered remote. The Company re-evaluates its derivative liabilities at each reporting period end and makes updates for any changes in facts and circumstances that may impact classification.
Warrants Issued in Connection with Financings
The Company generally accounts for warrants issued in connection with debt and equity financings as a component of equity, unless the warrants include a conditional obligation to issue a variable number of shares or there is a deemed possibility that the Company may need to settle the warrants in cash. For warrants issued with a conditional obligation to issue a variable number of shares or the deemed possibility of a cash settlement, the Company records the fair value of the warrants as a liability at each balance sheet date and records changes in fair value in other expense (income), net in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss.
Debt Issuance Costs and Interest
Discounts related to bifurcated derivatives, freestanding instruments issued in bundled transactions, and issuance costs are recorded as a reduction to the carrying value of the debt and amortized over the life of the debt using the effective interest method. The Company makes changes to the effective interest rate, as necessary, on a prospective basis. For debt facilities that provide for multiple advances, the Company initially defers any issuance costs until the first advance is made and then amortizes the costs over the life of the facility.
Research and Development Expenses and Licensed Technology
Research and development costs are expensed when incurred. These costs may consist of external research and development expenses incurred under agreements with third party contract research organizations and investigative sites, third party manufacturing organizations and consultants; license fees; employee-related expenses, which include salaries and benefits for the personnel involved in the Company’s preclinical and clinical drug development activities; facilities expense, and other expenses; and equipment and laboratory supplies.
Costs incurred for the rights to use licensed technologies in the research and development process, including licensing fees and milestone payments, are charged to research and development expense as incurred in situations where the Company has not identified an alternative future use for the acquired rights, and are capitalized in situations where there is an identified alternative future use. No cost associated with the use of licensed technologies has been capitalized to date.

Stock-Based Compensation Expense
Stock-based compensation expense is estimated at the grant date based on the fair value of the award, and the cost is recognized as expense ratably over the vesting period with forfeitures accounted for as they occur. The Company uses the Black-Scholes Merton option pricing model for estimating the grant date fair value of stock options using the following assumptions:
Volatility - Expected volatility is estimated using the historical stock price performance over the expected term of the award.
Expected term - The expected term is based on a simplified method which defines the life as the weighted average of the contractual term of the options and the vesting period for each award.
Risk-free rate - The risk-free interest rate for the expected term of the option is based on the average market rate on U.S. Treasury securities in effect during the period in which the awards were granted.
Dividends - The dividend yield assumption is based on the Company’s history and expectation of paying no dividends in the foreseeable future.
Loss Per Common Share
The Company applies FASB ASC No. 260, Earnings per Share in calculating its basic and diluted net loss per common share. Basic loss per share of common stock is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period. The diluted loss per share of common stock is computed by giving effect to all potential common stock equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury stock method. For purposes of this calculation, options to purchase common stock, restricted stock subject to vesting, warrants to purchase common stock and common shares underlying convertible debt instruments are considered to be common stock equivalents. The following outstanding shares of common stock equivalents were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share of common stock for the periods presented because including them would have been anti-dilutive:
Three Months Ended
March 31, (Unaudited)
2021 2020
Stock options 21,560,000  4,512,715 
Unvested restricted stock —  643,501 
Common shares underlying convertible debt 5,124,384  5,125,363 
Warrants 78,546,668  23,593,356 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity. This ASU amends the guidance on convertible instruments and the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity and improves and amends the related EPS guidance for both Subtopics. The ASU will be effective for annual reporting periods after December 15, 2023 and interim periods within those annual periods and early adoption is permitted in fiscal periods ending after December 15, 2020. Upon implementation, the Company may use either a modified retrospective or full retrospective method of adoption. The adoption of ASU 2020-06 will impact the way the Company calculates its (loss) earnings per share, result in expanded disclosures around convertible instruments and remove the requirement to assess and record beneficial conversion features. The impact from adoption will depend on whether the Company elects to early adopt this ASU. The Company currently plans to adopt the provisions of this ASU on the effective date. However, it reserves the right to early adopt these provisions.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. The Board issued this update as part of its Simplification Initiative to improve areas of GAAP and reduce cost and complexity while maintaining usefulness of the financial statements. The main provisions remove certain exceptions, including the exception to the general methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period when a year-to-date loss exceeds the anticipated loss for the year. In addition, the amendments simplify income tax accounting in the areas such as income-based franchise taxes, eliminating the requirements to allocate consolidated current and deferred tax expense in certain instances and a requirement that an entity reflects the effect of enacted changes in tax laws or rates in the annual effective tax rate computation
in the interim period that includes the enactment date. The Company adopted this ASU on the effective date of January 1, 2021. The amendments in the update related to foreign subsidiaries have been applied on a modified retrospective basis, the amendments to franchise taxes were applied on a modified retrospective basis and all other amendments have been applied on a prospective basis. Because the Company’s deferred tax assets net of deferred tax liabilities are fully reserved, the impact from the adoption of this standard was not material.