Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of income and expense during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The most significant accounting estimates inherent in the preparation of the Company’s financial statements include estimates as to the appropriate carrying value of certain assets and liabilities, which are not readily apparent from other sources. Such estimates and judgments are utilized for stock-based compensation expense, equity securities, derivative liabilities, and debt with embedded features.
Risks and Uncertainties
The Company’s operations are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to, changes in the general economy, the size and growth of the potential markets for any of the Company’s product candidates, results of research and development activities, uncertainties surrounding regulatory developments in the United States and Australia, and the Company’s ability to attract new funding.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The carrying values of those investments approximate their fair value due to their short maturity and liquidity. Cash includes cash on hand and amounts on deposit with financial institutions, which amounts may at times exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses on such accounts and does not believe it is exposed to any significant credit risk. As of December 31, 2020, and 2019, the Company has no cash equivalents.
Restricted cash on the balance sheet represents a certificate of deposit held by the Company’s bank as collateral for the Company’s credit cards.
Fair Value Measurements
Certain assets and liabilities are carried at fair value under GAAP. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (the “exit price”) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. A fair value hierarchy based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable, and the last is considered unobservable, is used to measure fair value:
The carrying values of the Company’s financial instruments, with the exception of the Amended Credit Agreement and derivative liabilities, including, cash, prepaid expenses, accounts payable, the PPP loan and other current liabilities approximate their fair value due to the short maturities of these financial instruments. The derivative liabilities are valued on a recurring basis utilizing Level 3 inputs (Note 3).
As of December 31, 2019, the fair value of the advances under the Amended Credit Agreement was $1,877,938, the carrying amount of the liability on December 31, 2019 was $387,070 and is included in Convertible multi-draw credit agreement - related party, net of discount in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of December 31, 2020, the Company estimates the fair value of the Amended Credit Agreement to be materially consistent with the fair value estimate as of December 31, 2019, plus the non-convertible advances made in 2020. This determination was based on the following considerations: (i) the Company has not experienced any significant change in its credit worthiness or operations year over year, (ii) there have been no repayments or convertible draws, (iii) the facility is closer to maturity, and (iv) the embedded conversion feature on the convertible advances is out-of-the-money at the reporting date. Information pertinent to estimating the fair value of the Amended Credit Agreement includes valuing the embedded conversion feature and considering the discounted cash flows of the interest and principal payments through maturity (Note 4).
The Company accounts for deferred income tax assets and liabilities based on differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, net operating loss carryforwards (the “NOLs”) and other tax credit carryforwards. These items are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in the period that includes the enactment date. Any interest or penalties would be recorded in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive (Loss) Income in the period incurred. When necessary, the Company recognizes interest and penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense.
The Company records a valuation allowance against deferred tax assets to the extent that it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. In making such determinations, management considers all available positive and negative evidence, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies and recent financial operations. Due to the substantial doubt related to the Company’s ability to utilize its deferred tax assets, a valuation allowance for the full amount of the deferred tax assets has been established at December 31, 2020 and 2019. As a result of this valuation allowance, there are no income tax benefits reflected in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive (Loss) Income to offset pre-tax losses.
The Company recognizes a tax benefit from uncertain tax positions when it is more likely than not (50%) that the position will be sustained upon examination, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position.
The Company accounts for hybrid contracts with embedded conversion features in accordance with GAAP. ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging Activities (“ASC 815”) requires companies to bifurcate conversion options from their host instruments and account for them as free-standing derivative financial instruments according to certain criteria. The criteria includes circumstances in which (a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative instrument are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract, (b) the hybrid instrument that embodies both the embedded derivative instrument and the host contract is not re-measured at fair value under otherwise applicable generally accepted accounting principles with changes in fair value reported in earnings as they occur and (c) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative instrument would be considered a derivative instrument.
The Company accounts for convertible debt instruments with embedded conversion features in accordance with ASC 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options (“ASC 470-20”) if it is determined that the conversion feature should not be bifurcated from their host instruments. Under ASC 470-20, the Company records, when necessary, discounts to convertible notes for the intrinsic value of conversion options embedded in debt instruments based upon the difference between the fair value of the underlying common stock at the commitment date and the embedded effective conversion price. When the Company determines that the embedded conversion option should be bifurcated from its host instrument, the embedded feature is accounted for in accordance with ASC 815. Under ASC 815, a portion of the proceeds received upon the issuance of the hybrid contract is allocated to the fair value of the derivative. The derivative is subsequently marked to market at each reporting date based on current fair value, with the changes in fair value reported in the results of operations.
The Company also follows ASC 480-10, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (“ASC 480-10”) when evaluating the accounting for its hybrid instruments. A financial instrument that embodies an unconditional obligation, or a financial instrument other than an outstanding share that embodies a conditional obligation, that the issuer must or may settle by issuing a variable number of its equity shares shall be classified as a liability (or an asset in some circumstances) if, at inception, the monetary value of the obligation is based solely or predominantly on any one of the following: (a) a fixed monetary amount known at inception (for example, a payable settled with a variable number of the issuer’s equity shares); (b) variations in something other than the fair value of the issuer’s equity shares (for example, a financial instrument indexed to the Standard and Poor’s S&P 500 Index and settled with a variable number of the issuer’s equity shares); or (c) variations inversely related to changes in the fair value of the issuer’s equity shares (for example, a written put option that could be net share settled). Hybrid instruments meeting these criteria are not further evaluated for any embedded derivatives and are carried as a liability at fair value at each balance sheet date with a re-measurement reported in other expense (income) in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive (Loss) Income.
When determining the short-term vs. long-term classification of derivative liabilities, the Company first evaluates the instruments’ exercise provisions. Generally, if a derivative is a liability and exercisable within one year, it will be classified as short-term. However, because of the unique provisions and circumstances that may impact the accounting for derivative instruments, the Company carefully evaluates all factors that could potentially restrict the instrument from being exercised or create a situation where exercise would be considered remote. The Company re-evaluates its derivative liabilities at each reporting period end and makes updates for any changes in facts and circumstances that may impact classification.
Warrants Issued in Connection with Financings
The Company generally accounts for warrants issued in connection with debt and equity financings as a component of equity, unless the warrants include a conditional obligation to issue a variable number of shares or there is a deemed possibility that the Company may need to settle the warrants in cash. For warrants issued with a conditional obligation to issue a variable number of shares or the deemed possibility of a cash settlement, the Company records the fair value of the warrants as a liability at each balance sheet date and records changes in fair value in other expense (income) in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive (Loss) Income.
Debt Issuance Costs and Interest
Discounts related to bifurcated derivatives, freestanding instruments issued in bundled transactions, and issuance costs are recorded as a reduction to the carrying value of the debt and amortized over the life of the debt using the effective interest method. The Company makes changes to the effective interest rate, as necessary, on a prospective basis. For debt facilities that provide for multiple advances, the Company initially defers any issuance costs until the first advance is made and then amortizes the costs over the life of the facility.
Research and Development Expenses and Licensed Technology
Research and development costs are expensed when incurred. These costs may consist of external research and development expenses incurred under agreements with third party contract research organizations and investigative sites, third party manufacturing organizations and consultants; license fees; employee-related expenses, which include salaries and benefits for the personnel involved in the Company’s preclinical and clinical drug development activities; facilities expense, and other expenses; and equipment and laboratory supplies.
Costs incurred for the rights to use licensed technologies in the research and development process, including licensing fees and milestone payments, are charged to research and development expense as incurred in situations where the Company has not identified an alternative future use for the acquired rights, and are capitalized in situations where there is an identified alternative future use. No cost associated with the use of licensed technologies has been capitalized to date.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
Stock-based compensation expense is estimated at the grant date based on the fair value of the award, and the cost is recognized as expense ratably over the vesting period with forfeitures accounted for as they occur. The Company uses the Black-Scholes Merton option pricing model for estimating the grant date fair value of stock options using the following assumptions:
Comprehensive (Loss) Income
Comprehensive (loss) income is defined as the change in equity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources. ASC 220 Comprehensive Income requires that an entity records all components of comprehensive (loss) income, net of their related tax effects, in its financial statements in the period in which they are recognized. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the comprehensive (loss) income was equal to net (loss) income.
Net (Loss) Income Per Share of Common Stock
The Company applies FASB ASC No. 260, Earnings per Share in calculating its basic and diluted net (loss) income per share. Basic net (loss) income per share of common stock is computed by dividing net (loss) income available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period. The diluted net (loss) income per share of common stock is computed by giving effect to all potential common stock equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury stock method. For purposes of this calculation, options to purchase common stock, restricted stock subject to vesting, warrants to purchase common stock and common shares underlying convertible debt instruments were considered to be common stock equivalents. In periods with a reported net loss, such common stock equivalents are excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share of common stock if their effect is anti-dilutive. For additional information regarding the net (loss) income per share, see Note 7 “Net (Loss) Income per Share of Common Stock.”
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity. This ASU amends the guidance on convertible instruments and the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity and improves and amends the related EPS guidance for both Subtopics. The ASU will be effective for annual reporting periods after December 15, 2023 and interim periods within those annual periods and early adoption is permitted in fiscal periods ending after December 15, 2020. Upon implementation, the Company may use either a modified retrospective or full retrospective method of adoption. The adoption of ASU 2020-06 will likely impact the way the Company calculates its (loss) earnings per share, result in expanded disclosures around convertible instruments and remove the requirement to assess and record beneficial conversion features. The impact from adoption will depend on whether the Company elects to early adopt this ASU. The Company currently plans to adopt the provisions of this ASU on the effective date. However, it reserves the right to early adopt these provisions.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. The Board issued this update as part of its Simplification Initiative to improve areas of GAAP and reduce cost and complexity while maintaining usefulness of the financial statements. The main provisions remove certain exceptions, including the exception to the general methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period when a year-to-date loss exceeds the anticipated loss for the year. In addition, the amendments simplify income tax accounting in the areas such as income-based franchise taxes, eliminating the requirements to allocate consolidated current and deferred tax expense in certain instances and a requirement that an entity reflects the effect of enacted changes in tax laws or rates in the annual effective tax rate computation in the interim period that includes the enactment date. For public companies, the standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods therein, with early adoption permitted. The Company plans to adopt this ASU on the effective date of January 1, 2021. The amendments in the update related to foreign subsidiaries will be applied on a modified retrospective basis, the amendments to franchise taxes will be applied on either a retrospective or modified retrospective basis and all other amendments will be applied on a prospective basis. Because the Company’s deferred tax assets and liabilities are fully reserved, it does not expect a material impact from the adoption of this standard.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13 Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) intended to improve the effectiveness of disclosures around fair value measurements in the notes to financial statements. The ASU affects all entities that are required to make disclosures about recurring or nonrecurring fair value measurements. The amendments in this Update modify the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement, based on the concepts in the Concepts Statement, including the consideration of costs and benefits. The Company early adopted certain provisions of this ASU upon issuance during the third quarter of 2018 and revised its disclosures to omit the disclosures removed by this ASU on a retrospective basis. As provided by the ASU, the Company elected to delay adoption of the additional disclosures until January 1, 2020, which include the range and weighed average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements, and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty until their effective date. Upon the effective date, the additional disclosures have been included on a prospective basis in the Company’s financial statements, as applicable. Because much of this information was disclosed prior to adoption this guidance did not have a substantial impact to the Company's disclosures in the notes to its financial statements and had no impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef