Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
In the opinion of management, the accompanying Unaudited Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared on a consistent basis with the Company’s Audited Consolidated Financial Statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021, and include all adjustments, consisting of only normal recurring adjustments, necessary to fairly state the information set forth herein. The Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and therefore, omit certain information and footnote disclosures necessary to present the financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”).
The results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2022 or any future periods. The Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2021 was derived from the Company’s audited financial statements as of December 31, 2021, which are included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 28, 2022. The Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, which includes a broader discussion of the Company’s business and the risks inherent therein.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries SKYE Bioscience Australia and Nemus Sub. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of income and expense during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The most significant accounting estimates inherent in the preparation of the Company’s financial statements include estimates and judgements as to the appropriate carrying values of equity instruments, derivative liabilities, debt with embedded features, estimates related to the Company's estimation of the percentage of completion under its research and development contracts and the valuation of stock based compensation awards, which are not readily apparent from other sources.
Risks and Uncertainties
The Company’s operations are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to, changes in the general economy, the size and growth of the potential markets for any of the Company’s product candidates, uncertainties related to the current global environment, including economic factors such as inflation, and risks related to the global supply chain disruptions (Note 1), risks related to operating primarily in a virtual environment, results of research and development activities, uncertainties surrounding regulatory developments in the United States, the European Union and Australia and the Company’s ability to attract new funding.
Fair Value Measurements
Certain assets and liabilities are carried at fair value under GAAP. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (the “exit price”) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. A fair value hierarchy based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable, and the last is considered unobservable, is used to measure fair value:
Level 1:    Valuations for assets and liabilities traded in active markets from readily available pricing sources such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2:    Observable inputs (other than Level 1 quoted prices) such as quoted prices in active markets for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active for identical or similar assets or liabilities or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data.
Level 3:    Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to determining the fair value of the assets or liabilities, including pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies and similar techniques.
The carrying values of the Company’s financial instruments, with the exception of the derivative liabilities, approximate their fair value due to their short maturities. The derivative liabilities are valued on a recurring basis utilizing Level 3 inputs (Note 4).
Convertible Instruments
The Company accounts for hybrid contracts with embedded conversion features in accordance with ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging Activities (“ASC 815”), which requires companies to bifurcate conversion options from their host instruments and account for them as free-standing derivative financial instruments according to certain criteria. The criteria includes circumstances in which (a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative instrument are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract, (b) the hybrid instrument that embodies both the embedded derivative instrument and the host contract is not re-measured at fair value under otherwise applicable generally accepted accounting principles with changes in fair value reported in earnings as they occur and (c) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative instrument would be considered a derivative instrument.
The Company accounts for convertible debt instruments with embedded conversion features in accordance with ASC 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options (“ASC 470-20”) if it is determined that the conversion feature should not be bifurcated from their host instruments. Under ASC 470-20, the Company records, when necessary, discounts to convertible notes for the intrinsic value of conversion options embedded in debt instruments based upon the difference between the fair value of the underlying common stock at the commitment date and the embedded effective conversion price. When the Company determines that the embedded conversion option should be bifurcated from its host instrument, the embedded feature is accounted for in accordance with ASC 815. Under ASC 815, a portion of the proceeds received upon the issuance of the hybrid contract is allocated to the fair value of the derivative. The derivative is subsequently recorded at fair value at each reporting date based on current fair value, with the changes in fair value reported in the results of operations.
The Company also follows ASC 480-10, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (“ASC 480-10”) when evaluating the accounting for its hybrid instruments. A financial instrument that embodies an unconditional obligation, or a financial instrument other than an outstanding share that embodies a conditional obligation, that the issuer must or may settle by issuing a variable number of its equity shares shall be classified as a liability (or an asset in some circumstances) if, at inception, the monetary value of the obligation is based solely or predominantly on any one of the following: (a) a fixed monetary amount known at inception (for example, a payable settled with a variable number of the issuer’s equity shares); (b) variations in something other than the fair value of the issuer’s equity shares (for example, a financial instrument indexed to the Standard and Poor’s S&P 500 Index and settled with a variable number of the issuer’s equity shares); or (c) variations inversely related to changes in the fair value of the issuer’s equity shares (for example, a written put option that could be net share settled). Hybrid instruments meeting these criteria are not further evaluated for any embedded derivatives and are carried as a liability at fair value at each balance sheet date with a re-measurement reported in other expense (income), net in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss.
When determining the short-term vs. long-term classification of derivative liabilities, the Company first evaluates the instruments’ exercise provisions. Generally, if a derivative is a liability and exercisable within one year, it will be classified as short-term. However, because of the unique provisions and circumstances that may impact the accounting for derivative instruments, the Company carefully evaluates all factors that could potentially restrict the instrument from being exercised or create a situation where exercise would be considered remote. The Company re-evaluates its derivative liabilities at each reporting period end and makes updates for any changes in facts and circumstances that may impact classification.
Warrants Issued in Connection with Financings
The Company generally accounts for warrants issued in connection with debt and equity financings as a component of equity, unless the warrants include a conditional obligation to issue a variable number of shares or there is a deemed possibility that the Company may need to settle the warrants in cash. For warrants issued with a conditional obligation to issue a variable number of shares or the deemed possibility of a cash settlement, the Company records the fair value of the warrants as a liability at each balance sheet date and records changes in fair value in other expense (income), net in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss.
Debt Issuance Costs and Interest
Discounts related to bifurcated derivatives, freestanding instruments issued in bundled transactions and issuance costs are recorded as a reduction to the carrying value of the debt and amortized over the life of the debt using the effective interest method. The Company makes changes to the effective interest rate, as necessary, on a prospective basis. For debt facilities that provide for multiple advances, the Company initially defers any issuance costs until the first advance is made and then amortizes the costs over the life of the facility.
Research and Development Expenses and Licensed Technology
Research and development costs are expensed when incurred. These costs may consist of external research and development expenses incurred under agreements with third-party contract research organizations and investigative sites, third-party manufacturing organizations and consultants, license fees, employee-related expenses, which include salaries and benefits for the personnel involved in the Company’s preclinical drug development activities, other expenses and equipment and laboratory supplies.
Costs incurred for the rights to use licensed technologies in the research and development process, including licensing fees and milestone payments, are charged to research and development expense as incurred in situations where the Company has not identified an alternative future use for the acquired rights, and are capitalized in situations where there is an identified alternative future use. None of the costs associated with the use of licensed technologies have been capitalized to date.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
Stock-based compensation expense is estimated at the grant date based on the fair value of the award, and the fair value is recognized as expense ratably over the vesting period with forfeitures accounted for as they occur. Upon the exercise of stock option awards, the Company's policy is to issue new shares of its common stock. The Company uses the Black-Scholes valuation method for estimating the grant date fair value of stock options using the following assumptions:
Volatility - Expected volatility is estimated using the historical stock price performance over the expected term of the award.
Expected term - The expected term is based on a simplified method which defines the life as the weighted average of the contractual term of the options and the vesting period for each award.
Risk-free rate - The risk-free interest rate for the expected term of the option is based on the average market rate on U.S. Treasury securities in effect during the period in which the awards were granted.
Dividends - The dividend yield assumption is based on the Company’s history and expectation of paying no dividends in the foreseeable future.
The Company accounts for liability-classified stock option awards (“liability options”) under ASC 718 - Compensation - Stock Compensation (“ASC 718”), under which the Company accounts for its awards containing other conditions as liability classified instruments. Liability options are initially recognized at fair value in stock-compensation expense and subsequently re-measured to their fair values at each reporting date with changes in the fair value recognized in share-based compensation expense or additional paid-in capital upon settlement or cancellation.
Loss Per Common Share
The Company applies ASC No. 260, Earnings per Share in calculating its basic and diluted loss per common share. Basic loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period. Diluted loss per share of common stock is computed by giving effect to all potential common stock equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury stock method. For purposes of this calculation, options to purchase common stock, restricted stock subject to vesting, warrants to purchase common stock and common shares underlying convertible debt instruments are considered to be common stock equivalents.
The computations of basic and diluted loss per common share are as follows:
Three Months Ended
September 30, (Unaudited)
Nine Months Ended
September 30, (Unaudited)
2022 2021 2022 2021
Basic net loss per share:
Net loss $ (3,127,283) $ (1,824,818) $ (9,589,960) $ (6,009,362)
Weighted average common shares outstanding – diluted 495,925,112  413,489,603  495,891,596  376,547,498 
Loss per share - basic $ (0.01) $   $ (0.02) $ (0.02)
Diluted net loss per share:
Net loss (as adjusted) $ (3,127,283) $ (1,704,980) $ (9,589,960) $ (6,009,362)
Weighted average common shares outstanding – diluted 495,925,112  414,461,032  495,891,596  376,547,498 
Net loss per share - diluted $ (0.01) $   $ (0.02) $ (0.02)
The following outstanding shares of common stock equivalents were excluded from the computation of diluted loss per share of common stock for the periods presented because including them would have been anti-dilutive:
Three Months Ended
September 30, (Unaudited)
Nine Months Ended
September 30, (Unaudited)
2022 2021 2022 2021
Stock options 37,755,000  23,490,000  37,755,000  23,490,000 
Common shares underlying convertible debt 5,661,025  5,303,591  5,661,025  5,303,591 
Warrants 136,187,225  133,945,796  136,187,225  134,917,225 
Unvested restricted stock units 4,000,000  —  4,000,000  — 
Asset Acquisition
The Company evaluates acquisitions of assets and other similar transactions to assess whether or not the transaction should be accounted for as a business combination or asset acquisition by first applying a screen test to determine if substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or group of similar identifiable assets. If the screen is met, the transaction is accounted for as an asset acquisition. If the screen is not met, further determination is required as to whether or not the Company has acquired inputs and processes that have the ability to create outputs which would meet the definition of a business. Significant judgment is required in the application of the screen test to determine whether an acquisition is a business combination or an acquisition of assets.
For asset acquisitions, a cost accumulation model is used to determine the cost of an asset acquisition. Common stock issued as consideration in an asset acquisition is generally measured based on the acquisition date fair value of the equity interests issued. Direct transaction costs are recognized as part of the cost of an asset acquisition. The Company also evaluates which elements of a transaction should be accounted for as a part of an asset acquisition and which should be accounted for separately. Consideration deposited into escrow accounts are evaluated to determine whether it should be included as part of the cost of an asset acquisition or accounted for as contingent consideration. Amounts held in escrow where we have legal title to such balances but where such accounts are not held in the Company's name, are recorded on a gross basis as an asset with a corresponding liability in our condensed consolidated balance sheet.
The cost of an asset acquisition, including transaction costs, are allocated to identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on a relative fair value basis. Goodwill is not recognized in an asset acquisition. Any difference between the cost of an asset acquisition and the fair value of the net assets acquired is allocated to the non-monetary identifiable assets based on their relative fair values. However, as of the date of acquisition, if certain assets are carried at fair value under other applicable GAAP the consideration is first allocated to those assets with the remainder allocated to the non-monetary identifiable assets based on relative fair value basis.
Government Assistance
The Company early adopted ASU 2021-10 Government Assistance on January 1, 2022. The Company accounts for the tax rebates received from the Australian Taxation Office ("ATO") under such guidance. The Company accounts for the rebates that it receives under the AusIndustry research and development tax incentive program under the income recognition model of IAS 20. Under this model, when there is reasonable assurance that the rebate will be received, the Company recognizes the income from the tax rebate as an offset to research and development expense during the period which the benefit applies to the research and development costs incurred. As of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company has recognized $131,959 and $44,616, respectively, in other current assets in its Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Subsequent Events
The Company has evaluated events that have occurred after the balance sheet date but before these condensed consolidated financial statements were issued. Based upon that evaluation, the Company did not identify any recognized or non-recognized subsequent events that would have required adjustment or disclosure in the financial statements, except as disclosed in Note 11 - Subsequent Events.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity. This ASU amends the guidance on convertible instruments and the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity and improves and amends the related EPS guidance for both Subtopics. The ASU will be effective for annual reporting periods after December 15, 2023 and interim periods within those annual periods and early adoption is permitted in fiscal periods ending after December 15, 2020. Upon implementation, the Company may use either a modified retrospective or full retrospective method of adoption. The adoption of ASU 2020-06 will impact the way the Company calculates its (loss) earnings per share, result in expanded disclosures around convertible instruments and remove the requirement to assess and record beneficial conversion features. The Company currently plans to adopt the provisions of this ASU on the effective date. However, it reserves the right to early adopt these provisions.