Nature of Operations, Business Activities and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Nature of Operations, Business Activities and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
1. Nature of Operations, Business Activities and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Operations and Basis of Presentation
Nemus Bioscience, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company that plans to develop and commercialize therapeutics from cannabinoids through a partnership with the University of Mississippi. The University of Mississippi (“UM”) is federally permitted and licensed to cultivate cannabis for research purposes. Unless otherwise specified, references in these Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements to the “Company,” “we” or “our” refer to Nemus Bioscience, Inc., a Nevada corporation formerly known as Load Guard Logistics, Inc. (“LGL”), together with its wholly-owned subsidiary, Nemus, a California corporation (“Nemus”). Nemus became the wholly owned subsidiary of Nemus Bioscience, Inc. through the Merger (as defined below).
Nemus Bioscience, Inc. (formerly LGL) was incorporated in Nevada on March 16, 2011. Nemus was incorporated in California on July 17, 2012. Our headquarters are located in Costa Mesa, California.
As of December 31, 2017, the Company has devoted substantially all of its efforts to securing product licenses, raising capital, and building infrastructure, and has not realized revenue from its planned principal operations.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expense during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The most significant accounting estimates inherent in the preparation of our financial statements include estimates as to the appropriate carrying value of certain assets and liabilities which are not readily apparent from other sources. Such estimates and judgments are utilized for stock-based compensation expense and equity securities with embedded features as discussed below.
Liquidity and Going Concern
The Company has incurred operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since our inception. As of December 31, 2017, we had cash and cash equivalents of $259,955. In January 2018, the Company received a second payment totaling $400,000 from a convertible bridge loan and completed the first closing of a common stock financing for gross proceeds totaling $1,500,000 (see note 9). In February 2018, the Company completed the final closing of its common stock financing for additional proceeds of $1,750,000 (see note 9). The Company anticipates that it will continue to incur net losses into the foreseeable future in order to advance and develop a number of potential drug candidates into preclinical development activities and support its corporate infrastructure which includes the costs associated with being a public company. Without additional funding, management believes that the Company will not have sufficient funds to meet its obligations within one year after the date the consolidated financial statements were issued. These conditions give rise to substantial doubt as to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The accompanying consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
The Company’s continued existence is dependent on its ability to raise additional sufficient funding to cover operating expenses and to invest in operations and development activities. The Company plans to continue to pursue funding through public or private equity or debt financings, strategic collaborations, licensing arrangements, asset sales, government grants or other arrangements. However, the Company cannot provide any assurances that such additional funds will be available on reasonable terms, or at all. If the Company raises additional funds by issuing equity securities, substantial dilution to existing stockholders would result. If the Company is unable to secure adequate additional funding, the Company may be forced to reduce spending, extend payment terms with suppliers, liquidate assets where possible, suspend or curtail planned programs or cease operations.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The carrying value of those investments approximates their fair market value due to their short maturity and liquidity. Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and amounts on deposit with financial institutions, which amounts may at times exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses on such accounts and does not believe it is exposed to any significant credit risk.
A deposit of $4,428 as of December 31, 2017 and $37,500 as of December 31, 2016 was restricted from withdrawal and held by a bank in the form of a certificate of deposit. This certificate serves as collateral for payment of the Company’s credit cards.
Fair Value Measurements
Certain assets and liabilities are carried at fair value under U.S. GAAP. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. A fair value hierarchy based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last is considered unobservable, is used to measure fair value:
The carrying values of our financial instruments, including, cash and cash equivalents, prepaid expenses, accounts payable, and accrued expenses approximate their fair value due to the short maturities of these financial instruments. The Series B warrant liability, put option, and the conversion liabilities for the Series B Preferred Stock, Series F Preferred Stock and the convertible bridge loan were valued utilizing Level 3 inputs primarily from a third party independent appraisal conducted as of December 31, 2017.
Property and Equipment, Net
As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, property and equipment, net, was $1,407 and $9,584 respectively, consisting primarily of computers and equipment. Expenditures for additions, renewals and improvements will be capitalized at cost. Depreciation will generally be computed on a straight-line method based on the estimated useful life of the related assets currently ranging from two to three years. Maintenance and repairs that do not extend the life of assets are charged to expense when incurred. When properties are disposed of, the related costs and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is reported in the period the transaction takes place.
Property and equipment are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to estimated undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount exceeds its estimated future undiscounted cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized by the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value of the asset.
The costs incurred for the rights to use licensed technologies in the research and development process, including licensing fees and milestone payments, will be charged to research and development expense as incurred in situations where the Company has not identified an alternative future use for the acquired rights, and are capitalized in situations where there is an identified alternative future use. No cost associated with the use of licensed technologies has been capitalized to date.
The Company accounts for deferred income tax assets and liabilities based on differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, and net operating loss carry forwards (the “NOLs”) and other tax credit carry forwards. These items are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in the period that includes the enactment date. Any interest or penalties would be recorded in the Company’s statement of operations in the period incurred.
The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred income tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. In making such determinations, management considers all available positive and negative evidence, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies and recent financial operations. As a result, there are no income tax benefits reflected in the statement of operations to offset pre-tax losses.
The Company recognizes a tax benefit from uncertain tax positions when it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position.
We account for hybrid contracts that feature conversion options in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging Activities (“ASC 815”) requires companies to bifurcate conversion options from their host instruments and account for them as free standing derivative financial instruments according to certain criteria. The criteria includes circumstances in which (a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative instrument are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract, (b) the hybrid instrument that embodies both the embedded derivative instrument and the host contract is not re-measured at fair value under otherwise applicable generally accepted accounting principles with changes in fair value reported in earnings as they occur and (c) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative instrument would be considered a derivative instrument.
Conversion options that contain variable settlement features such as provisions to adjust the conversion price upon subsequent issuances of equity or equity linked securities at exercise prices more favorable than that featured in the hybrid contract generally result in their bifurcation from the host instrument.
We account for convertible instruments when we have determined that the embedded conversion options should not be bifurcated from their host instruments, in accordance with ASC 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options (“ASC 470-20”). Under ASC 470-20, we record, when necessary, discounts to convertible notes for the intrinsic value of conversion options embedded in debt instruments based upon the differences between the fair value of the underlying common stock at the commitment date of the note transaction and the effective conversion price embedded in the note. We account for convertible instruments (when we have determined that the embedded conversion options should be bifurcated from their host instruments) in accordance with ASC 815. Under ASC 815, a portion of the proceeds received upon the issuance of the hybrid contract is allocated to the fair value of the derivative. The derivative is subsequently marked to market at each reporting date based on current fair value, with the changes in fair value reported in results of operations.
We also follow ASC 480-10, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (“ASC 480-10”) in its evaluation of the accounting for a hybrid instrument. A financial instrument that embodies an unconditional obligation, or a financial instrument other than an outstanding share that embodies a conditional obligation, that the issuer must or may settle by issuing a variable number of its equity shares shall be classified as a liability (or an asset in some circumstances) if, at inception, the monetary value of the obligation is based solely or predominantly on any one of the following: (a) a fixed monetary amount known at inception (for example, a payable settled with a variable number of the issuer’s equity shares); (b) variations in something other than the fair value of the issuer’s equity shares (for example, a financial instrument indexed to the Standard and Poor’s S&P 500 Index and settled with a variable number of the issuer’s equity shares); or (c) variations inversely related to changes in the fair value of the issuer’s equity shares (for example, a written put option that could be net share settled). Hybrid instruments meeting these criteria are not further evaluated for any embedded derivatives, and are carried as a liability at fair value at each balance sheet date with a re-measurement reported in interest expense in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Warrants Issued in Connection with Financings
We generally account for warrants issued in connection with debt and equity financings as a component of equity, unless the warrants include a conditional obligation to issue a variable number of shares or there is a deemed possibility that we may need to settle the warrants in cash. For warrants issued with a conditional obligation to issue a variable number of shares or the deemed possibility of a cash settlement, we record the fair value of the warrants as a liability at each balance sheet date and record changes in fair value in other (income) expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company has not begun planned principal operations and has not generated any revenue since inception.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development (“R&D”) costs are expensed when incurred. These costs may consist of external research and development expenses incurred under agreements with third-party contract research organizations and investigative sites, third-party manufacturing organizations and consultants; license fees; employee-related expenses, which include salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation for the personnel involved in our preclinical and clinical drug development activities; and facilities expense, depreciation and other allocated expenses; and equipment and laboratory supplies.
Stock-Based Compensation Expenses
Stock-based compensation cost is estimated at the grant date based on the fair value of the award, and the cost is recognized as expense ratably over the vesting period. We use the Black-Scholes option pricing model for estimating the grant date fair value of stock options and warrants using the following assumptions:
Stock-Based Compensation for Non-Employees
The Company accounts for warrants and options issued to non-employees under Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) No. 505-50, Equity - Equity Based Payments to Non-Employees, using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The value of such non-employee awards is periodically re-measured over the vesting terms and at each quarter end.
FASB ASC No. 280, Segment Reporting, establishes standards for reporting information about reportable segments. Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group (“CODM”), in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The CODM evaluates revenues and gross profits based on product lines and routes to market. Based on the early development stage of our operation, we operate in a single reportable segment.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources. The Company is required to record all components of comprehensive income (loss) in the consolidated financial statements in the period in which they are recognized. Net income (loss) and other comprehensive income (loss), net of their related tax effect, arrived at a comprehensive income (loss). For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, the comprehensive income (loss) was equal to the net income (loss).
Earnings per share
The Company applies FASB ASC No. 260, Earnings per Share. Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing earnings (loss) available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding. Diluted earnings or loss per share would include the dilutive effect of outstanding warrants and awards granted to employees under stock-based compensation plans. Potentially dilutive shares of the Company’s common stock are excluded from the calculation of diluted loss per common share because their effect would be anti-dilutive for the periods presented. For the year ended December 31, 2017, 2,833.55 shares of Series B Preferred Stock convertible into 28,335,500 common shares at $0.10 per share, 200 shares of Series D Preferred Stock convertible into 2,000,000 common shares at $0.10 per share, 2,000 shares of Series F Preferred Stock convertible into 20,000,000 common shares at $0.10 per share, warrants to purchase 11,649,500 common shares and stock options exercisable for 1,130,000 common shares outstanding at the end of the period are excluded from the calculation of diluted loss per common share. For the year ended December 31, 2016, 4,031 shares of Series B Preferred Stock convertible into 16,124,000 common shares at $0.25 per share, warrants to purchase 11,044,500 common shares and stock options exercisable for 1,142,500 common shares outstanding at the end of the period are excluded from the calculation of diluted loss per common share.
Recent accounting pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02 Leases (Topic 842) intended to improve financial reporting around leasing transactions. The ASU affects all companies and other organizations that lease assets such as real estate, airplanes, and manufacturing equipment. The ASU will require organizations that lease assets - referred to as “lessees”- to recognize on the balance sheet the assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by those leases. For public companies, the standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods therein. Earlier adoption is permitted for any annual or interim period for which consolidated financial statements have not yet been issued. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact that the adoption of ASU No. 2016-02 may have on its consolidated financial statements. The Company will adopt this ASU beginning on January 1, 2019 and will utilize the modified retrospective transition approach, as prescribed within this ASU.
In August 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-15 Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230) that requires entities to show the changes in the total cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents in the statement of cash flows. As a result, entities will no longer present transfers between cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents in the statement of cash flows. For public companies, the guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017 and early adoption is permitted. The Company anticipates that the impact of this standard will not be significant on its consolidated financial statements and will adopt this ASU beginning on January 1, 2018.
In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480) and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): I. Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features; II. Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception, (ASU 2017-11). Part I of this update addresses the complexity of accounting for certain financial instruments with down round features. Down round features are features of certain equity-linked instruments (or embedded features) that result in the strike price being reduced on the basis of the pricing of future equity offerings. Current accounting guidance creates cost and complexity for entities that issue financial instruments (such as warrants and convertible instruments) with down round features that require fair value measurement of the entire instrument or conversion option. Part II of this update addresses the difficulty of navigating Topic 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, because of the existence of extensive pending content in the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. This pending content is the result of the indefinite deferral of accounting requirements about mandatorily redeemable financial instruments of certain nonpublic entities and certain mandatorily redeemable non-controlling interests. The amendments in Part II of this update do not have an accounting effect. This ASU is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company is currently assessing the potential impact of adopting ASU 2017-11 on its financial statements and related disclosures.